Optimization of a Fuzzy Based Energy Management Strategy for a PV/WT/FC Hybrid

Yousef Allahvirdizadeh, Mustafa Mohamadian, Mahmoud-Reza HaghiFam, Amir Hamidi

Abstract


Decline of natural resources reserves , global warming, energy cost increase, and rising electricity demand make clean and sustainable energy provision using hybrid renewable resources inevitable.  Solar and wind energy as free and eco-friendly sources of energy have been considered a promising choice for remote (or rural) area electrification. Dependence of PV/WT production on weather condition necessitates integrating a backup system and storage banks. While a fuel-cell system makes a clean backup available, incorporating both energy type and power type storage technologies, such as batteries, hydrogen-based storage systems, and supercapacitors, extends the energy sources/storage units useful lifespan and decreases the operation cost of the system. An energy control system is required to provide the load with reliable, continuous, high quality and economical energy. Considering PV/WT production uncertainty, load power variations and measurement imprecision, energy management system based on fuzzy logic technique serves an effective method to meet the design objectives, such as energy efficiency maximization, reliable and continuous energy supply, DC bus voltage stabilization etc. The fuzzy logic controller is designed based on the prior knowledge and experience of an expert. Thus, it is not an optimal strategy. Aiming to optimize preferred aspects of the fuzzy controller, it should be combined with evolutionary algorithms, such as genetic. Therefore, this paper deals with the rule-based fuzzy logic energy control of an off-grid PV/WT/FC/UC hybrid renewable system. Applying the genetic algorithm, the ECMS and the EEMS) are utilized to tune off-line the fuzzy logic control, in order to the fuel consumption optimization.  To reduce computation time during the optimization process, the fuzzy rule set remains fixed. Employing a simulation model of the hybrid renewable system, multiple criteria such as the fuel efficiency, the fuel-cell stack efficiency, and the fuel consumption are taken into account to evaluate the energy management strategy's performance. Simulation results show that The fuzzy-ECMS and the fuzzy-EEMS keeps the battery SOC around the “0.5 ( + ” and the  , respectively. As a result, better fuel economy and higher battery lifetime can be achieved via the fuzzy-EEMS and the fuzzy-ECMS, respectively.


Total Views: 225

Keywords


ECMS, Genetic algorithm, Optimization, EEMS, Fuel-cells, PV/WT system, energy management

Full Text:

PDF

References


References

Mohammed Yekini Suberu, Nouruddeen Bashir, Ogundola Matthew Adefemi, Umar Usman. re-newable energy distributed electricity generation and microgrid implementation in rural villages: a re-view. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2013; 8: 149-156.

Bouthaina Madaci , Rachid Chenni, Erol Kurt, Kamel Eddine Hemsas. Design and control of a stand-alone hybrid power system. International journal of hydrogen energy 2016: 1-12.

Gokay Bayrak, Mehmet Cebeci.Grid connected fuel cell and PV hybrid power generating system design with Matlab Simulink. International journal of hydrogen energy 2014; 39: 8803-8812 .

Logeswaran T, Senthilkumar A, Karuppusamy P. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy model for grid-connected photovoltaic system.

International Journal of Fuzzy Systems 2015; 17(4):585-94.

Altın N. Interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller based maximum power point tracking in photovoltaic systems. Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering 2013; 13(3):65-70.

Ekin Ozgirgin, Yılser Devrim, Ayhan Albostan. Modeling and simulation of a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) module-electrolyzer-PEM fuel cell system for micro-cogeneration applications. International journal of hydrogen energy 2015: 1-7.

Erkan Dursun, Osman Kilic. Comparative evaluation of different power management strategies of a stand-alone PV/Wind/PEMFC hybrid power system. Electrical Power and Energy Systems 2012; 34:81-89.

Bahram Panahandeh, Jochen Bard, Abdelkader Outzourhit, Driss Zejli. Simulation of PV/Wind-hybrid systems combined with hydrogen storage for rural electrification. International journal of hy-drogen energy 2011; 36: 4185-4197.

Fengbing Li, Kaigui Xie , and Jiangping Yang. Optimization and Analysis of a Hybrid Energy Storage System in a Small-Scale Standalone Microgrid for Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS). Ener-gies 2015, 8, 4802-4826.

Henerica Tazvinga , Xiaohua Xia, Bing Zhu. Optimal energy management strategy for distributed energy Resources. Energy Procedia 2014:61: 1331 – 1334.

O.C. Onar, M. Uzunoglu, M.S. Alam. Modeling, control and simulation of an autonomous wind turbine/photovoltaic/fuel cell/ultra-capacitor hybrid power system. Journal of Power Sources 2008; 185: 1273–1283

Rudi Kaiser. Optimized battery-management system to improve storage lifetime in renewable en-ergy systems. Journal of Power Sources 2007; 168:58–65

Javier Solano Martinez,Robert I. John, Daniel Hissel, Marie-Cécile Péra. A survey-based type-2 fuzzy logic system for energy management in hybrid electrical vehicles 2012; 190:192-207

Bo Zhao, Xuesong Zhang, Jian Chen, Caisheng Wang, and Li Guo. Operation Optimization of Standalone Microgrids Considering Lifetime Characteristics of Battery Energy Storage System. IEEE transactions on sustainable energy 2013;4:934-942.

Hernandez-Aramburo C A, Green TC, Mugniot N. Fuel consumption minimization of a microgrid. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl 2005; 41(3):673–681.

Eroglu M, Dursun E, Sevencan S, Song J, Yazici S, Kilic O. A mobile renewable house using PV/wind/fuel cell hybrid power system. International journal of hydrogen energy 2011; 36(13):7985–92.

Erdinc O, Uzunoglu M. A new perspective in optimum sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems: consideration of component performance degradation issue International journal of hydrogen energy 2012; 37(14):10479–88.

Onur E, Ugur SS. A comparative sizing analysis of a renewable energy supplied stand-alone house considering both demand side and source side dynamics. Applied Energy 2012; 96:400–8.

Jiang Zhenhua, Gao Lijun, Dougal Roger A. Adaptive control strategy for active power sharing in hybrid fuel cell/battery power sources. IEEE Trans Energy Conver 2007;22.

Emad M. Natsheh, Alhussein Albarbar. Hybrid Power Systems Energy Controller Based on Neu-ral Network and Fuzzy Logic. Smart Grid and Renewable Energy 2013; 4:187-197.

Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Chengshan; Cheng, Ling; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard. Fuzzy Logic based Coordinated Control of Battery Energy Storage System and Dispatchable Distributed Generation for Microgrid . Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy 2015; 3:422-428.

Pablo García, Carlos Andrés García, Luis M. Fernández, Francisco Llorens, and Francisco Jurado. ANFIS-Based Control of a Grid-Connected Hybrid System Integrating Renewable Energies, Hydrogen and Batteries. IEEE Transactions on industrial informatics 2014; 10:1107-1117.

Suganya B S, Arivalahan R. Power Management of Hybrid Renewable System Integrated with Energy Storage System. International journal of innovative research in electrical, electronics, instru-mentation and control engineering 2015; 3:123-128.

Souleman Njoya Motapon, Louis-A. Dessaint and Kamal Al-Haddad. A Comparative Study of Energy Management Schemes for a Fuel-Cell Hybrid Emergency Power System of More-Electric Air-craft. IEEE transactions on industrial electronics 2014; 61:1320-1334.

Mohammad Ali Karbaschian, Dirk Soffkerm. Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives. Energies 2014; 7:3512-3536.

Souleman Njoya Motapon, Louis-A. Dessaint and Kamal Al-Haddad. A Robust H2-Consumption-Minimization-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Emergency Power System of More Electric Aircraft. IEEE transaction on industrial electronics 2014; 61:6148-6156.

A. T. Azar, Fuzzy Systems. Vienna, Austria: In Tech, 2010.

S. Caux, W. Hankache, M. Fadel , D. Hissel. On-line fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell systems. International journal of hydrogen energy 20010; 35:2134-2143.

Ahmed Mohamed, M. Elshaer, Osama Mohammed. Control enhancement of power conditioning units for high quality PV systems. Electric Power Systems Research 2012; 90:30– 41

Rudi Kaiser. Optimized battery-management system to improve storage lifetime in renewable en-ergy systems. Journal of Power Sources 2007; 168 :58–65

M. Bostanian1, S. M. Barakati, B. Najjari, D.Mohebi Kalhori. A Genetic-Fuzzy Control Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle. International Journal of Automotive Engineering 2013; 3:482-495.

Pawar, Prashant M., Ganguli, Ranjan. Structural Health Monitoring Using Genetic Fuzzy Systems. 2011.

Azar Zafari. Developing a fuzzy interface system by using genetic algorithm and expert knowledge. Master thesis, University of Twente, February, 2014.

P. García, J.P. Torreglosa, L.M. Fernández, F. Jurado. Viability study of a FC-battery-SC tramway controlled by equivalent consumption minimization strategy. International journal of hydrogen energy 2010; 37: 9368 - 9382.

Zheng, C. H., N. W. Kim, and S. W. Cha. Optimal control in the power management of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2012;37: 655-663.

Krismadinata, Nasrudin Abd. Rahim, Hew Wooi Ping, Jeyraj Selvaraj. Photovoltaic module mod-eling using simulink/Matlab. Procedia Environmental Sciences 2013; 17: 537 – 546

Villavla MG, Gazoli JR, Filho ER. Comprehensive approach to modeling and simulation of pho-tovoltaic arrays. IEEE

Tran Power Electron 2009;24(5).

Nicu Bizon, Mihai Oproescu , Mircea Raceanu. Efficient energy control strategies for a Standalone Renewable/Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source. Energy Conversion and Management 2015; 9093:110

Hala J. El‑Khozondar1, Rifa J. El‑Khozondar, Khaled Matter,Teuvo Suntio. A review study of photovoltaic array maximum power tracking algorithms. Renewables: wind, water, and solar. 2016; 3. DOI 10.1186/s40807-016-0022-8

H. Bounechba, A. Bouzid, K. Nabti and H. Benalla. Comparison of Perturb & Observe and Fuzzy Logic in Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems. Energy Procedia 2014; 50: 677 – 684.

Parimita M, Bhuvaneswari G, Balasubramanian R, Navdeep KD. Matlab based modeling to study the performance of different MPPT techniques used for solar PV system under various operating con-ditions. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 2014;38:581-93.

M.A.S. Masoum, H. Dehbonei, E.F. Fuchs. Theoretical and experimental analyses of photovoltaic systems with voltage and current-based maximum power-point tracking. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. 2002; 7 (4):514–522.

M. Veerachary, T. Senjyu, K. Uezato, Voltage-based maximum power point tracking control of PV system

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. 20023; 8 (1): 262–270.

S. Masoud Barakati, Mehrdad Kazerani, and J. Dwight Aplevich,. Maximum Power Tracking Control for a Wind Turbine System Including a Matrix Converter. ieee transactions on energy conver-sion, 2009; 24(3): 705-713.

Alejandro Rolan', Alvaro Luna, Gerardo Vazquez, Daniel Aguilar, Gustavo Azevedo. Modeling of a Variable Speed Wind Turbine with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator. Seoul Olympic Parktel, Seoul, Korea July 5-8, 2009

Dimitris Ipsakis, Spyros Voutetakis, Panos Seferlis, Fotis Stergiopoulos, Costas Elmasides. Power management strategies for a stand-alone power system using renewable energy sources and hydrogen storage 2009; 34:7081 –7095.[45] Tremblay, O., Dessaint, L.-A. "Experimental Validation of a Bat-tery Dynamic Model for EV Applications.". World Electric Vehicle Journal.2009;3:, May 13 – 16.

Souleman njoya motapon, “Design and simulation of a fuel cell hybrid emergency power system for a more electric aircraft: evaluation of energy management schemes, Ph.D. thesis. École de technol-ogie supérieure university March 2013.

Nicu Bizon. Energy harvesting from the FC stack that operates using the MPP tracking based on modified extremum seeking control. Applied Energy 2013; 104:326–336.

M.Y. El-Sharkh, A. Rahman, M.S. Alam. Short term scheduling of multiple grid-parallel PEM fuel cells for microgrid applications.

International journal of hydrogen energy 2010; 35:11099-11106.

Souleman Njoya Motapon, Louis-A. Dessaint and Kamal Al-Haddad. A Comparative Study of Energy Management Schemes for a Fuel-Cell Hybrid Emergency Power System of More-Electric Air-craft. IEEE transactions on industrial electronics 2014; 61:1320-1334.

J. Padulles, G. W. Ault, and J. R. McDonald. An integrated SOFC plant dynamic model for power systems simulation. J. Power Sources 2000;86: 495–500.

Souleman Njoya M., Olivier Tremblay, and Louis-A. Dessaint. A Generic Fuel Cell Model for the Simulation of Fuel Cell Vehicles. Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference 2009. 1722 – 1729.

Mohammad SB, Mohsen N. Comparative performance analysis of a hybrid PV/FC/battery stand-alone system using different power management strategies and sizing approaches. International journal of hydrogen energy 2015; 40(1):538-548.

Tourkia Lf, Slim A, Anis A. Modeling, control, and simulation of a solar hydrogen/fuel cell hybrid energy system for grid connected applications. Advances in Power Electronics 2013; 9.

Nooshin B. Optimal management of hybrid PV/fuel cell/ battery power system: a comparison of optimal hybrid approaches. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2015; 42:377-393.

O.C. Onar, M. Uzunoglu, M.S. Alam. Dynamic modeling, design and simulation of a wind/fuel cell/ultra-capacitor-based hybrid power generation system. Journal of Power Sources 2006; 161:707–722.

Phatiphat Thounthonga,∗ , Viboon Chunkagb , Panarit Sethakula , Suwat Sikkabutc , Serge Pier-federici, Bernard Davatd. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source. Journal of Power Sources 2011;196 : 313–324.

Mr.Prashant Gorakhnath. Patil, Asst. Prof. Kotha Venkateshwarlu, Mr. Mohan Tukaram Patel. Application of Super Capacitor Energy Storage in Microgrid System. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR) 2015; 4:589-594.

K. B. Oldham, “A Gouy–Chapman–Stern model of the double layer at a(metal)/(ionic liquid) in-terface,” J. Electroanal. Chem., vol. 613, no. 2, pp. 131–138, Feb. 2008


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online ISSN: 1309-0127

www.ijrer.org

ijrereditor@gmail.com; ilhcol@gmail.com;

IJRER is cited in SCOPUS, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE (Thomson Reuters)