Temperature and Catalyst Variations for Optimal Biodiesel Oil Production from Callophyllum Inophyllum using Esterification and Transesterification (ESTRANS) Process

syamsir dewang, Bannu Abdul Samad, Diana Diana, Eka Sri Lestari, Wira Bahari Nurdin

Abstract


Callophyllum Innophyllum L., called nyamplung in Indonesia, is an evergreen tree whose seed oil has potential as a source of biodiesel. This is one form of alternative energy that could contribute to solve the current problem of diminishing petroleum energy and global climate mitigation. Biodiesel is considered relatively environmentally friendly, and can help to reduce air pollution. This research focussed on the variation in temperature and catalyst to optimise biodiesel production from nyamplung, using esterification and tansesterification (ESTRANS) process. The problem for producing biodiesel is how to reduce the content of free fatty acids (FFA) below 2% according to international standards. The esterification process is done in order to find FFA value of 1.46%, and the next process is transesterification by using solution of alkaline catalyst. This measurement uses NaOH, KOH, and MgOH catalysts with the variations in concentrations ranging from 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%, as well as variations in temperature are 45, 55 and 65oC. The results of yield and viscosity values obtained optimal catalyst NaOH 1% at 55oC were 98.8% and 5.5 mm2/s, respectively, in accordance with standard values.

To determine the content of methyl  ester, Gass Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used. Results showed that, at optimal temperatures, the best product  was obtained using the NaOH catalyst at 1% with a temperature of 55oC. This biodiesel contained percentages of methyl palmitate, methyl oleic, and methyl stearate of 35.51%, 15.45%, and  28.30%, complying with current biodiesel standards.


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Keywords


Nyamplung, Alexandrian laurel balltree, Biodiesel, Esterification, transesterification, and methyl ester.

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