Load Frequency Controller Design for Microgrid Using Internal Model Approach

SENTHIL KUMAR, A.Jeya Veronica


The impact of renewable energy sources is no longer negligible in microgrids when high penetration levels are required. This paper explores load frequency control issues in a microgrid comprising of wind turbinegenerators(WTG), diesel generators(DG), fuel cells(FC) fed by aqua electrolyzers(AE) and battery energy storage systems (BESS). Due to the interconnection of these intermittent energy sources the microgrid frequency deviates. To enhance the frequency regulation in the microgrid, PI controllers are used for controlling the real power generation of these micro sources. It is observed that the system frequency regulation improves considerably by utilizing PI Controllers tuned using internal model control(IMC) approach. This paper explores the design procedure of IMC tuned PI controllers and fractional order PI(FOPI) controllers for micro grid systems. The robustness of the IMC based PI Controllers have been verified by changing the parameters of the micro grid sources.

Total Views: 450

Full Text:



T. Senjyu, T. Nakaji, K. Uezato, and T. Funabashi, “A hybrid power system using alternative energy facilities in isolated island,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers, vol. 20,no.2, pp. 406–414, June 2005.

Dong-Jing Lee and Li Wang, “Small-Signal Stability Analysis of an Autonomous Hybrid Renewable Energy Power Generation/Energy Storage System Part I: Time-Domain Simulations”, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers, vol.23, no.1, pp.311-320, March 2008.

K.V. Vidyanandan, Nilanjan Senroy, “Frequency regulation in a wind–diesel poweredmicrogrid using flywheels and Fuel Cell”, IET Generation Transmission Distribution, Vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 780–788,2016.

I. Serban,C.Marinescu, “Battery energy storage system for frequency support in microgrids and with enhanced control features for uninterruptible supply of local loads”, Electrical Power and Energy System, vol.54, pp.432-441,Jan 2015.

Alexandre Oudalov, Daniel Chartouni, and Christian Ohler, “ Optimizing a Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Control”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst, Vol. 22, no. 3, August 2007.

Abdul Motin Howlader,Yuya Izumi, Akie Uehara, Naomitsu Urasaki, Tomonobu Senjyu,Atsushi Yona, Ahmed Yousuf Saber, “A minimal order observer based frequency control strategy for an integrated wind-battery-diesel power system”,Energy,vol .46, no.1, pp. 168-178, October 2012.

I.Serban,C.Marinescu, “Aggregate load-frequency control of a wind-hydro autonomous microgrid”,Renewable Energy., vol. 36, no.12, pp. 3345-3354, December 2011.

Yi Han, Peter Michael Young, Abhishek Jain, Daniel Zimmerle, “Robust Control for Microgrid Frequency DeviationReduction With Attached Storage System”,IEEE Trans. Smart Grid,vol. 6, no.2,pp. 557–565, March 2015.

M.Khalid, A.V. Savkin, “An optimal operation of wind energy storage system for frequency control based on model predictive control”, Renewable Energy, vol.48, pp.127–32, December 2012.

Geeta Pathak, Singh, Bijaya Ketan Panigrahi. Control of Wind-Diesel Microgrid Using Affine Projection-Like Algorithm”, IEEE Trans. industrial informatics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 524-531, April 2016.

Mousa Marzband, Maziar Mirhosseini Moghaddam, Mudathir Funsho Akorede, Ghazal Khomeyrani, “Adaptive load shedding scheme for frequency stability enhancement in microgrids”,Electric Power Systems Research,vol.140, pp.78–86, November 2016.

Hassan Bevrani, Mohammad Ramin Feizi and Sirwan Ataee, “Robust Frequency Control in Islanded Microgrid:H∞ and μ-Synthesis Approaches”, IEEE Trans Smart Grid, vol. 7, no. 2, pp.706-717, March 2016.

Mohammad Reza Khalghani, Mohammad Hassan Khooban, Esmaeil Mahboubi-Moghaddam, Navid Vafamand, Mohammad Goodarzi, “A self-tuning load frequency control strategy for microgrids: Human brain emotional learning,” Electrical Power and Energy Systems,vol.75, pp.311-319, February 2016.

H. Bevrani,F. Habibi, P. Babahajyani, M. WatanabeandY. Mitani, Intelligent Frequency Control in an AC Microgrid: Online PSO-Based Fuzzy Tuning approach”,IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, Vol. 3, No. 4,pp.1935-1943, Dec 2012.

Cuk Supriyadi, Ali Nandar, “Robust PI control of smart controllable load for frequency stabilization of microgrid power system”, Renewable Energy, vol. 56, pp. 16-23, August 2013.

Xiangjun Li , Yu-Jin Song, Soo-Bin Han, “ Frequency control in micro-grid power system combined with electrolyzer system and fuzzy PI controller”, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 180, no.1,pp. 468–475, May 2008.

G. Mallesham, S. Mishra, and A. N. Jha, “Ziegler-Nichols based Controller ParametersTuningfor Load Frequency Control in a Microgrid”,Int. conf Energy, Automation and signal(ICEAS), pp.1-8, 2011.

Raheel Ali, Tarek Hassan Mohamed , Yaser Soliman Qudaih, Y. Mitani , “ A new load frequency control approach in an isolated small power systems using coefficient diagram method”,Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 56, pp. 110–116, March 2014.

Prakash K. Ray, Soumya R. Mohanty, Nand Kishor, “Proportional–integral controller based small-signal analysis of hybrid distributed generation”,Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, no.4,pp. 1943–1954, April 2011.

M.Morari and E.Zafiriou, Robust Process Control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989.

W. Tan, “Tuning of PID load frequency controller for power systems”,Energy Conversion and Management,vol.50, no.6, pp.1465–1472, June 2009.

Mahsan Tavakoli-Kakhki, Mohammad Haeri, “Fractional order model reduction approach basedon retention of the dominantdynamics: Application in IMC based tuning of FOPI and FOPIDcontrollers”, ISA Transactions, vol. 50, pp.432–442, March 2011.



Online ISSN: 1309-0127


ijrereditor@gmail.com; ilhcol@gmail.com;

IJRER is cited in SCOPUS, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE (Thomson Reuters)